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  • 当前位置:主页 > 行业应用 > LED > 正文

    几种车用LED驱动方案的比较

    时间:2019-08-24 03:34 来源:未知 编辑:admin

    核心提示

    摘要:汽车上的转向灯不再是只能一闪一灭了。现在的LED光带中发光颗粒可以以一定次序亮灭,光带看上去像发光虫子朝着汽车转向或者变道的方向直直地游去:现在不仅仅转向灯可以...

      摘要:汽车上的转向灯不再是只能一闪一灭了。现在的LED光带中发光颗粒可以以一定次序亮灭,光带看上去像发光虫子朝着汽车转向或者变道的方向直直地游去:现在不仅仅转向灯可以实现上述功能了,全车的照明都已经发展成可以以上述方式开启和熄灭。随着LED灯具应用领域越来越广泛,研究分析用于控制LED灯的转换器拓扑结构也就越来越迫切了。

      因为LED灯具有很高的应用灵活性,所以在进行汽车设计时,设计人员可利用LED高可塑性将车辆的灯光作为该汽车品牌外观亮点。而且LED灯发光效率高,使用寿命长,这也从技术角度解释了为什么这种光源越来越受到汽车厂家的青睐。汽车上都有很多种类的灯由LED光源扛起了大梁,包括方向灯、尾灯、近光灯和刹车灯,这些LED灯担任的角色不同,功能不同,对为其驱动的电源也提出了不同的要求,并且驱动电路的拓扑结构必须尽可能地完全满足LED灯对驱动电源的要求。此外,LED灯的性能也在不断地发展。一方面,驱动电流仅为10mA级LED灯产生的亮度能持续增强,另一方面,单个LED需要的电流已经达到了数安培,这都给LED的控制提出了不同的要求。现在没有,也不可能存在一种通用的拓扑结构能满足所有LED光源的要求,而且可以兼顾低成本和高效率。这就不难理解,IC设计人员在选择和协调驱动方案时,涉及的可能使用的驱动方案越多,他们就越要关注各个方案的特点与应用要求的匹配情况。

      基础数据

      从技术上说,设计用于控制车辆照明LED的控制电路考虑到很多方面。这种电路的设计从几个不同的方向都取得了进展:一方面,驱动电流在50毫安以下的LED灯的亮度能在不断增强,另一方面,驱动电流达到数安培的单个LED获得了长足的发展。在本文中,我们将比较七个可能用于控制车辆照明LED的拓扑结构,并解释它们的性能和各自应用领域。IC设计人员可以在对各种拓扑结构介绍的基础上,根据应用要求的特点,在多种拓扑结构中选择成本与工艺要求相匹配的那一种。但是,这些拓扑结构中并不存在一种低成本同时又高效率的,适用于所有应用领域的通用拓扑结构。

      只有在得到良好的散热,并且驱动电流稳定的前提条件下,LED灯才能正常运行并达到它的最大使用寿命。在近几年来,随着OLED(有机发光二极管)技术已经进入到这个领域,LED灯对上述基本使用条件的要求更为苛刻了,这是因为,相对于较早出现的,以LED技术制造的LED灯,以OLED技术制造的LED灯对高电流密度更为敏感。此外, OLED驱动方式中所采用的亮度调节方式为模拟驱动方法,即,通过模拟控制电路,而不是通过数字脉冲宽度调制技术(PWM)改变灯的发光强度。

      如远光灯和近光灯,这种发光时功率较高的LED灯需要几乎强制性的时钟控制功率系统。以电子方式控制的,高效的开关转换器可以减少LED灯工作过程中出现的功率损耗。相对于传统的白炽灯,LED灯和电子器件对高温工作环境更为敏感,所以,在设计转换器工作环境时,为确保转换器高效运行,需要将转换器安装在足够大的空间内,也就是说,从冷却技术方面考虑,足够大的安装空间确保转换器能够稳定工作。

      限制和要求

      在设计车辆照明电路过程中,设计人员遇到的最典型的挑战是,要为不同种类的LED灯提供相当宽的驱动电压范围,并且不同LED灯要求的输入电压和输入电流之组合各不相同。通常情况下,向LED模块驱动的电压下限在4V左右,而向LED模块驱动的电压的范围会受到汽车启停系统(Start-Stop-System)的影响;位于极性保护电路后的电子器件的驱动电压下限往往只有3V。因为LED灯输出功率被设置为恒定,这就导致当其驱动电压较低时,输入电流持续升高。

    •   DC/DC电源管理
    •   步进电机控制器
    •   远光灯/近光灯
    •   雾灯
    •   日间行车灯
    •   方向灯
    •   带总线接口的LIN控制器

      elmos Semiconductor公司推出的 E522.xx系列控制器可满足针对车辆前部照明所需的各种LED灯,并符合解决方案设定的限定条件和要求。

      为了抵消这种电流升高的效应,在LED灯控制电路的设计任务书中往往要求设计出一种合适的降低输入电流额定值的电路装置(例如,一种可以设在灯具中,在灯的驱动电压较低时,能够实现线性降低灯输入电流额定值的电路装置)。模拟连续驱动电路装置可以实现连续向LED供电,避免出现照明中断的情况。上述措施不仅仅在技术上解决了问题,而且在设计极性保护电路的最大电流时以及EMC(电磁兼容性)滤波元件的最大电流时,使用上述措施也有利于降低解决方案的成本。

      一般来说,如果串联连接的LED工作电压大于等于2V,乃至所需的电压达到55V以上时,以集成电路(IC)驱动方案对其进行驱动是无法产生足够的驱动电流的。此外,对上述串联LED进行驱动,电路中的电流可以被调整而实现的电流范围应该满足以下条件,即,经模拟调整实现的最大电流与经模拟调整实现的最小电流之间的比应大于10:1。一般情况下,经调整后电流的极值为1.5A,在试验研究中,模拟输出的电流的极值已经达到了大于3A小于6A的这个范围内,此时,用于实现点光源的单个二极管的光通量大于1000流明。

      现在的问题是,哪种拓扑结构和哪种LED相匹配呢?下面的例子给出了一些用于特定应用领域,实现成本也合适的拓扑结构以及这些拓扑结构潜在的应用领域。选择这些例子的出发点是体现应用程序开发人员的愿望,也就是编制出一个拓扑结构为一个特定的组合,即,在照明设备上获得的恒定电流和电压的组合。如何设计这样的拓扑结构,有很多种思路。

      线性拓扑结构

      电源集成电路转换器适合于电流和功率比较小的LED灯,比如,转向灯、尾灯、雾灯,还有低成本的日间行车灯。这些电源集成电路的总成本比较小,而且典型的电源集成应用起来非常简单。原则上,电源集成电路工作期间对外的辐射量很小,所以几乎不需要为电源集成电路配EMC(电磁兼容性)滤波器。本文不讨论用于交换解决方案所需的电感式存储器的相关问题。

      在选择对LED进行驱动的驱动方案时,选择哪种方案往往除了受到LED电路的限制之外,还要受到驱动器内的电流大小的限制。在车辆中常用的线性驱动器的电流极限值一般大于40mA小于70mA。电路设计人员必须针对此限制条件采取措施,以确保驱动器模块的温度不至于升至保证电路安全运行的极限值以上。当今业内已经开发出了相应的温度管理方案,能够确保在驱动器内的电流极限值能够大于150mA。elmos 半导体公司推出的E522.80/81/82/83LED控制器就是作为可行的温度管理方案的一个很好的例子,该系列LED控制器中内置了三个独立的电流源,在并联输出的情况下,向LED驱动的总电流可达450mA。

      E522.81线性横流LED评估板

      例如E522.80/81/82/83系列线性控制器可以作为电源集成电路型控制器控制如转向灯,尾灯等工作电流和功率比较小的LED灯,即,工作电流大约在大于40mA且小于70mA这个范围之内的LED灯。

      此外,elmos Semiconductor公司还支持多颗芯片级联使用,当任何一串灯出现故障的时候进行故障诊断。在不同国家里针对处理单个LED故障设定了不同的处理目标和行业规则,这些目标和规则包括对故障公差的规定以及关于不完整的光源完全停止工作的规定和处理目标。如果设有一个本地的控制器,则PWM信号可以将可能存在的硬件缺陷精确地识别出来,并将识别得到的信息发回给控制器。

      Boost-to-GND-拓扑结构

      Boost-to-GND拓扑结构是一种典型的拓扑结构,它也被称作升压电路或者Step-Up升压转换器。它是一种效率很高且一般情况下EMC(电磁兼容性)非常友好的拓扑结构。然而,只有在所有的工作状态下,负载电压都大于输入电压时,才可以使用这种拓扑结构。所以在车辆照明电路中几乎不会使用这种拓扑结构。因为在这种拓扑结构中的驱动处设置了电感存储器,所在Boost升压转换器的输入电流大致维持不变,因此,这种拓扑结构相对于其他拓扑结构更容易被过滤。当这种拓扑结构的负载处于其可以使用的负载范围之内时,且考虑到Jumpstart的要求(在较长的一段时间内驱动电压在不高于28V的水平),则电路的电压在大于30V且小于60V的区间内。因为LED灯对温度条件要求非常高,所以从技术角度考虑,在上述电压区间内几乎不能在LED灯的电路中使用Boost拓扑结构。

      最后但同样重要的一点是,如果输出电压超过了60V,则必须采取专门的措施,以确保人员在触碰相关电子器件不会被电击伤。当涉及带有更大的正向电压OLED stack时,Boost转换器的作用再一次扮演了更为重要的角色。例如, elmosE522.31/32/33/34就是作为LED控制使用的Boost转换器的解决方案。

      Boost-to-Battery-拓扑结构

      这种拓扑结构的基本原理和典型的Booster拓扑结构的基本原理类似,在这种拓扑结构中,LED负载的基点不是接地,而是驱动电压。Boost-to-Battery拓扑结构也可以被简称为Boost-to-Bat-拓扑结构,任意规格的输入电压在经过这种拓扑结构之后可以输出任意规格的输出电压。因此,从技术的角度上分析,它是一个Buck-Boost拓扑结构。

    Boost-to-Battery拓扑结构

      Boost-to-Battery拓扑结构也可以被简称为Boost-to-Bat-拓扑结构,任意规格的输入电压在经过这种拓扑结构之后可以输出任意规格的输出电压;然而,必须在这个拓扑结构中配置一个差分式电流检测放大器。

      Lowside开关将在第一相中的电流负载在电感器中,在第二相中(即Lowside已经被断开的状态),存储在电路中的能量通过空转二极管被传回到输出端。

      使用这种拓扑结构必须满足一个前提条件,即,在拓扑结构中设置一个差分式电流检测放大器,上述差分式电流检测放大器通过一个宽共模电压范围能实现精确的测量。Elmos出品的LED驱动器E522.31/32/33/34中包括了一个特殊的放大器,可以在大于4V小于55V的范围内进行测量,其测量的失调电压小于3mV,测量的温度范围为小于150 °C。此外,上述驱动器还可以提供外部频率同步,以及一个任意可用的内部扩频调制( frequencyspread modulaTIon),如果对LED控制装置提出了很高的EMC(电磁兼容性)要求,那么这种驱动器可以帮助整个系统满足《CISPR25》中针对汽车电子部件作出的规定。

      在上述驱动器电子器件的内部和外部电路中都设有不同的诊断功能,本驱动器可以在电压在60V以下时正常工作,而且通过本驱动器可以实现数字和模拟的调光功能。汽车内部电压稳压器(LDOs)可以同时对控制器或者模拟辅助电路以3.3V和5V供电。

      Buck-to-Ground 拓扑结构

      第二个经典的拓扑结构为Buck-to-Ground拓扑结构,简称为Buck-to-GND-拓扑结构,这种拓扑结构属于降压转换器(Step-Down-Converter 或者 Buck-Converter)。该转换器可以让负载电压小于输入电压,此性能对于解决电子控制问题很有意义。一般来说,此类转换器可以为一个到两个LED灯提供大电流。与Boost拓扑结构相反,驱动侧的降压转换器可以调整电流,负载电流被设定了上限。因此,具有这种拓扑结构的转换器不像具有Boost拓扑结构那样,总是需要配置降低输入电流额定值的电路装置。

      降压转换器可以配合日间行车灯(DRL)、雾灯、转向灯、车灯以及倒车灯工作。市场上已经开发出了很多照明产品,比如,针对电流小于2A的照明产品开发出了基于降压转换器的elmos E522.10型控制器。对于电流较大,即,小于6A的LED,市场上开发出了基于开关稳压器IC的解决方案。这种解决方案允许在外部激励晶体管内灵活选择导通电阻。这就意味着,设计人员可以根据实际情况降低成本。在有的情况下可以使用Buck-to-Battery拓扑结构,例如带有LED控制器的E522.31/32/33/34。

      Buck-to-Battery-拓扑结构

      还有一种使用了N型晶体管用在Lowside控制器里形成的拓扑结构,这种Buck-转换器用于为LED灯驱动(被称为Buck-to-Battery拓扑结构或者简称为Buck-to-Bat拓扑结构)。在这种控制器工作过程中,相对于电池,LED负载为负电荷,因此,LED的电势永远在电池驱动电势和大地电势之间。在电感器通过一个Lowside开关或者空转二极管交替充电放电期间,来自电感器的,变化幅度小的电流向串联的LED灯供电。

      Buck-to-Battery拓扑结构可以通过电源开关处较小电压振幅帮助减少在侧面内的开关损失以及通过高交换层级减少向外的辐射量。

      通过在电源开关较小的电压振幅,这种拓扑结构可以帮助减少边缘的开关损失,并通过高交换层级减少向外的辐射量。因为这种拓扑结构可以通过一个外部开关总是能与一个给定的电流条件和电压条件相匹配,所以这样的解决方案是相当灵活的。在组件设计过程中拓扑结构设计开发人员必须时时注意,转换器所决定的最大占空比(Duty Cycle)。Elmos建议,采用经典的Buck拓扑结构平衡这种Buck-to-Battery-拓扑结构。此时,大部分情况下转换器都允许100 %的占空比(Duty Cycle),采用经典的Buck拓扑结构进行平衡之后,Buck-to-Battery-拓扑结构可用的输入电压区间可以向下延伸。因为Buck-to-Battery-也需要差分放大器,elmos支持采取各种方式给开发人员以支持,如 elmos提供已经完成的、完整的演示电路。

      在电容器中用于缓冲电源电压的电路的有效值是一个常常被低估的要求。当涉及Buck-转换器(和Buck-to-Battery)时,电流往往呈梯形或者矩形。在Buck-转换器的占空比为50%的例子中,有效的RMS-电流为输出侧负载电流的一半。

    公式

      在一些情况下,带有两个集成的控制电路的LED转换器E522.32/34可以解决有效电流问题;上述转换器也可以用在多相系统中。即,通过将电源电路中的相位偏转180°,并且对电流进行分流,可以明显降低不同部件中的功耗。

      Sepic-拓扑结构

      从原理上说,Sepic拓扑结构需要lowside-开关的转换器,诸如LED控制器系列的E522.31/32/33/34就可以应用于Sepic拓扑结构。不仅仅从输入电压,而且也可以从输出电压导出应用于Sepic拓扑结构的中晶体管和二极管的电压要求(一般来讲,应用于Sepic拓扑结构的中晶体管和二极管的电压要求与输入电压和输出电压的和有关)。因此,建议使用外部电源开关。在市场上,可以买到高质量的多种型号和外部电源开关,在选择时,可以灵活地选择不同的耐电强度的外部电源开关,也可以灵活选择不同工作电流的外部电源开关。高RMS电流要求对耦合电容器规格的选择起着很重要的作用,因此,通常采用陶瓷耦合电容器用作外部电源开关中的耦合电容器。

      在进行涉及Sepic-拓扑结构的设计工作时,经常遇到的一个问题是,是否需要一个由两个线圈构成的耦合。如果从工作原理出发考虑这个问题,得到的回答是不需要,但是:如果核心上设置一个由两个线圈构成的耦合,则可以说,耦合会限制在两个线圈的中电流上升。综上所述可以得出,一个互相耦合的线圈电感值仅仅是两个分离的电感线圈的一半即可。通常情况下,综上所述,无论从器件的结构紧凑性还是成本来说,设一个耦合的线圈都是一种合理的选项。从控制技术角度上说,耦合也有它的优点,因为耦合减少了相关磁极的复杂性。

      Zeta,尚未被人了解的转换器

      从原理上说,Zeta转换器就是一种头部被旋转了的Sepic转换器。和Sepic转换器相反,Zeta转换器作为Highside开关使用。一种可以与Sepic拓扑结构相类比的网络将能量传输到输出端。这种拓扑结构的优点是具有较低的耐电强度,这一特性对于线圈之间的耦合电容的正常工作是必要的条件。此外,还有其他一些与Sepic拓扑结构相类似的原则,以及对于两个电感存储器之间的耦合也适用于Zeta转换器。

      一般来说,Buck转换器集成电路适合于在Zeta拓扑结构中被操作。电源开关必须能够承受相对于转换器接地电位电压为输出电压的负漏电压。出于上述原因,在这种拓扑结构中不宜使用异步激励级;实际上,必须使用带有外部P-FET的驱动器或者带有自由连接的漏机端子内部集成晶体管。此处,可以使用elmos推出的控制器E522.01-09和E522.10。

      Zeta拓扑结构在EMC(电磁兼容性)方面的表现和Buck转换器类似。会出现不连续的输入电流和连续的输出电流的情况。如果作为需要向小负荷且冷启动(Cold-Cranking)的用电器进行驱动的电源,Zeta拓扑结构会是一种很有意思的选项。在转换器E522.10的基础上进行设计开发或者在控制器系列E522.01-09的基础上进行开发,可以达到上述应用要求。这种带有内置驱动器,漏电电压耐受力小于-10V的Buck转换器也特别适合于Zeta拓扑结构。

    作者:Andre Suhaus ,产品设计部高级经理,elmos Semiconductor AG

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