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  • 当前位置:主页 > 行业应用 > 工业控制 > 正文

    伺服电机的常见故障原图与维修,伺服电机过热

    时间:2019-10-10 03:41 来源:未知 编辑:admin

    核心提示

    伺服电机(servo motor )是指在伺服系统中控制机械元件运转的发动机,是一种补助马达间接变速装置。伺服电机可使控制速度,位置精度非常准确,可以将电压信号转化为转矩和转速以...

      伺服电机(servo motor )是指在伺服系统中控制机械元件运转的发动机,是一种补助马达间接变速装置。伺服电机可使控制速度,位置精度非常准确,可以将电压信号转化为转矩和转速以驱动控制对象。伺服电机转子转速受输入信号控制,并能快速反应,在自动控制系统中,用作执行元件,且具有机电时间常数小、线性度高、始动电压等特性,可把所收到的电信号转换成电动机轴上的角位移或角速度输出。分为直流和交流伺服电动机两大类,其主要特点是,当信号电压为零时无自转现象,转速随着转矩的增加而匀速下降。

      伺服电机的常见故障原图与维修,伺服电机过热问题的解决方法

      伺服电机使用的常见故障原因及其排除方法

      1、通电后电动机不能转动,但无异响,也无异味和冒烟

      (1)故障原因

      ①电源未通(至少两相未通);

      ②熔丝熔断(至少两相熔断);

      ③过流继电器调得过小;

      ④控制设备接线错误。

      (2)故障排除

      ①检查电源回路开关,熔丝、接线盒处是否有断点,修复;

      ②检查熔丝型号、熔断原因,换新熔丝;

      ③调节继电器整定值与电动机配合;

      ④改正接线。

      2、通电后电动机不转有嗡嗡声

      (1)故障原因

      ①转子绕组有断路(一相断线)或电源一相失电;

      ②绕组引出线始末端接错或绕组内部接反;

      ③电源回路接点松动,接触电阻大;

      ④电动机负载过大或转子卡住;

      ⑤电源电压过低;

      ⑥小型电动机装配太紧或轴承内油脂过硬;

      ⑦轴承卡住。

      (2)故障排除

      ①查明断点予以修复;

      ②检查绕组极性;判断绕组末端是否正确;

      ③紧固松动的接线螺丝,用万用表判断各接头是否假接,予以修复;

      ④减载或查出并消除机械故障,

      ⑤检查是否把规定的面接法误接;是否由于电源导线过细使压降过大,予以纠正;

      ⑥新装配使之灵活;更换合格油脂;

      ⑦修复轴承。

      3、电动机起动困难,额定负载时,电动机转速低于额定转速较多

      (1)故障原因

      ①电源电压过低;

      ②面接法电机误接;

      ③转子开焊或断裂;

      ④转子局部线圈错接、接反;

      ③修复电机绕组时增加匝数过多;

      ⑤电机过载。

      (2)故障排除

      ①测量电源电压,设法改善;

      ②纠正接法;

      ③检查开焊和断点并修复;

      ④查出误接处予以改正;

      ⑤恢复正确匝数;

      ⑥减载。

      4、电动机空载电流不平衡,三相相差大

      (1)故障原因

      ①绕组首尾端接错;

      ②电源电压不平衡;

      ③绕组存在匝间短路、线圈反接等故障。

      (2)故障排除

      ①检查并纠正;

      ②测量电源电压,设法消除不平衡;

      ③消除绕组故障。

      伺服电机的常见故障原图与维修,伺服电机过热问题的解决方法

      5、电动机运行时响声不正常有异响

      (1)故障原因

      ①轴承磨损或油内有砂粒等异物;

      ②转子铁芯松动;

      ③轴承缺油;

      ④电源电压过高或不平衡。

      (2)故障排除

      ①更换轴承或清洗轴承;

      ②检修转子铁芯;

      ③加油;

      ④检查并调整电源电压。

      6、运行中电动机振动较大

      (1)故障原因

      ①由于磨损轴承间隙过大;

      ②气隙不均匀;

      ③转子不平衡;

      ④转轴弯曲;

      ⑤联轴器(皮带轮)同轴度过低。

      (2)故障排除

      ①检修轴承,必要时更换;

      ②调整气隙,使之均匀;

      ③校正转子动平衡;

      ④校直转轴;

      ⑤重新校正,使之符合规定。

      7、轴承过热

      (1)故障原因

      ①滑脂过多或过少;

      ②油质不好含有杂质;

      ③轴承与轴颈或端盖配合不当(过松或过紧);

      ④轴承内孔偏心,与轴相擦;

      ⑤电动机端盖或轴承盖未装平;

      ⑥电动机与负载间联轴器未校正,或皮带过紧;

      ⑦轴承间隙过大或过小;

      ⑧电动机轴弯曲。

      (2)故障排除

      ①按规定加润滑脂(容积的1/3-2/3);

      ②更换清洁的润滑滑脂;

      ③过松可用粘结剂修复,过紧应车,磨轴颈或端盖内孔,使之适合;

      ④修理轴承盖,消除擦点;

      ⑤重新装配;

      ⑥重新校正,调整皮带张力;

      ⑦更换新轴承;

      ⑧校正电机轴或更换转子。

      8、电动机过热甚至冒烟

      (1)故障原因

      ①电源电压过高;

      ②电源电压过低,电动机又带额定负载运行,电流过大使绕组发热;

      ③修理拆除绕组时,采用热拆法不当,烧伤铁芯;

      ④电动机过载或频繁起动;

      ⑤电动机缺相,两相运行;

      ⑥重绕后定于绕组浸漆不充分;

      ⑦环境温度高电动机表面污垢多,或通风道堵塞;

      (2)故障排除

      ①降低电源电压(如调整供电变压器分接头);

      ②提高电源电压或换粗供电导线;

      ③检修铁芯,排除故障;

      ④减载;按规定次数控制起动;

      ⑤恢复三相运行;

      ⑥采用二次浸漆及真空浸漆工艺;

      ⑦清洗电动机,改善环境温度,采用降温措施。

      伺服电机的常见故障原图与维修,伺服电机过热问题的解决方法

      伺服电机的维修方法

      伺服电机的维修可以说是相对复杂的,但伺服电机因为长期连续不断使用或者使用者操作不当,会经常发生电机故障。伺服电机的维修需要专业人士来进行,小编现在就以伺服电机发生的几个常见的故障问题为大家简单介绍伺服电机维修,虽然不会十分透彻,但是您看后对伺服电机出现的问题一定不会再一头雾水了。

      众所周知,伺服电机指的是在伺服系统中控制机械元件运转的发动机,是一种补助马达间接变速装置。然而关于各种维修知识,你都知道多少?

      1、起动伺服电机前需做的工作有哪些?

      (1)测量绝缘电阻(对低电压电机不应低于0.5M)。

      (2)测量电源电压,检查电机接线是否正确,电源电压是否符合要求。

      (3)检查起动设备是否良好。

      (4)检查熔断器是否合适。

      (5)检查电机接地、接零是否良好。

      (6)检查传动装置是否有缺陷。

      (7)检查电机环境是否合适,清除易燃品和其它杂物。

      2、伺服电机轴承过热的原因有哪些?

      电机本身:

      (1)轴承内外圈配合太紧。

      (2)零部件形位公差有问题,如机座、端盖、轴等零件同轴度不好。

      (3)轴承选用不当。

      (4)轴承润滑不良或轴承清洗不净,润滑脂内有杂物。

      (5)轴电流。

      使用方面:

      (1)机组安装不当,如电机轴和所拖动的装置的轴同轴度一合要求。

      (2)皮带轮拉动过紧。

      (3)轴承维护不好,润滑脂不足或超过使用期,发干变质。

      3、伺服电机三相电流不平衡的原因是什么?

      (1)三相电压不平衡。

      (2)电机内部某相支路焊接不良或接触不好

      (3)电机绕阻匝间短路或对地相间短路。

      (4)接线错误。

      4、怎么控制伺服电机速度快慢?

      伺服电机是一个典型闭环反馈系统,减速齿轮组由电机驱动,其终端(输出端)带动一个线性的比例电位器作位置检测,该电位器把转角坐标转换为一比例电压反馈给控制线路板,控制线路板将其与输入的控制脉冲信号比较,产生纠正脉冲,并驱动电机正向或反向地转动,使齿轮组的输出位置与期望值相符,令纠正脉冲趋于为0,从而达到使伺服电机精确定位与定速的目的。

      5、观察电机运转时碳刷与换向器之间是否产生火花及火花的程度进行修复:

      (1)只是有2~4个极小火花.这时若换向器表面是平整的.大多数情况可不必修理;

      (2)是无任何火花.无需修理;

      (3)有4个以上的极小火花,而且有1~3个大火花,则不必拆卸电枢,只需用砂纸磨碳刷换向器;

      (4)如果出现4个以上的大火花,则需要用砂纸磨换向器,而且必须把碳刷与电枢拆卸下来.换碳刷磨碳刷。

      6、换向器的修复:

      (1)换向器表面明显地不平整(用手能触觉)或电机运转时火花如第四种情况。此时需拆卸电枢,用精密机床加工转换器;

      (2)基本平整,只是有极小的伤痕或火花,如第二种情况l口1以用水砂纸手工研磨在不拆卸电枢的情况下研磨。研磨的顺序是:先按换向器的外圆弧度,加工一个木制的工具,将几种不同粗细的水砂纸剪成如换向器一样宽的长条,取下碳刷(请注意在取下的碳刷的柄上与碳刷槽上做记号,确保安装时不致左右换错)用裹好砂纸的木制工具贴实换向器,用另一只手按电机旋转方向,轻轻转动轴换向器研磨。伺服电机维修使用砂纸粗细的顺序先粗后细当一张砂纸瞎得不能用后,再换另较细的砂纸,直到用完最细的水砂纸(或金相砂纸)。

      7、伺服电机编码器相位与转子磁极相位零点如何对齐的修复:

      增量式编码器的相位对齐方式

      带换相信号的增量式编码器的UVW电子换相信号的相位与转子磁极相位,或曰电角度相位之间的对齐方法如下:

      (1)用一个直流电源给电机的UV绕组通以小于额定电流的直流电,U入,V出,将电机轴定向至一个平衡位置;

      (2)用示波器观察编码器的U相信号和Z信号;

      (3)调整编码器转轴与电机轴的相对位置;

      (4)一边调整,一边观察编码器U相信号跳变沿,和Z信号,直到Z信号稳定在高电平上(在此默认Z信号的常态为低电平),锁定编码器与电机的相对位置关系;

      (5)来回扭转电机轴,撒手后,若电机轴每次自由回复到平衡位置时,Z信号都能稳定在高电平上,则对齐有效。

      绝对式编码器的相位对齐方式

      绝对式编码器的相位对齐对于单圈和多圈而言,差别不大,其实都是在一圈内对齐编码器的检测相位与电机电角度的相位。目前非常实用的方法是利用编码器内部的EEPROM,存储编码器随机安装在电机轴上后实测的相位,具体方法如下:

      (1)将编码器随机安装在电机上,即固结编码器转轴与电机轴,以及编码器外壳与电机外壳;

      (2)用一个直流电源给电机的UV绕组通以小于额定电流的直流电,U入,V出,将电机轴定向至一个平衡位置;

      (3)用伺服驱动器读取绝对编码器的单圈位置值,并存入编码器内部记录电机电角度初始相位的EEPROM中;

      (4)对齐过程结束。

      伺服电机的常见故障原图与维修,伺服电机过热问题的解决方法

      伺服电机的过热问题

      伺服电机过热的原因如下:

      (1)负载过大;

      (2)缺项;

      (3)风道阻塞;

      (4)低速运行时间过长;

      (5)电源偕波过大。

      根据伺服电机的原理,想要减少电机发热,就需要减少铜损和铁损。减少铜损有两个方向,减少电阻和减少电流,这就要求我们在选型的时候尽量选择而定电流较小的电机,对两相电机,能用串联的电机就不用并联电机。但是这往往与力矩和高速的要求相抵触。对于已经选定的电机,则应充分利用驱动器的自动半流控制功能和脱机功能,前者在电机处于静态时自动减少电流,后者干脆将电流切断。另外,细分驱动器由于电流波形接近正弦,谐波少,电机发热也会较少。而减少铁损的方法并不多,电压的等级与铁损有关,所以应选择合适的驱动电压等级,同时又要考虑到高速性,平稳性和发热,噪音等指标。

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