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  • 当前位置:主页 > 行业应用 > 工业控制 > 正文

    浅析伺服电机的惯量问题,伺服电机低惯量与高

    时间:2019-10-10 03:41 来源:未知 编辑:admin

    核心提示

    伺服电机(servo motor )是指在伺服系统中控制机械元件运转的发动机,是一种补助马达间接变速装置。伺服电机可使控制速度,位置精度非常准确,可以将电压信号转化为转矩和转速以...

      伺服电机(servo motor )是指在伺服系统中控制机械元件运转的发动机,是一种补助马达间接变速装置。伺服电机可使控制速度,位置精度非常准确,可以将电压信号转化为转矩和转速以驱动控制对象。伺服电机转子转速受输入信号控制,并能快速反应,在自动控制系统中,用作执行元件,且具有机电时间常数小、线性度高、始动电压等特性,可把所收到的电信号转换成电动机轴上的角位移或角速度输出。分为直流和交流伺服电动机两大类,其主要特点是,当信号电压为零时无自转现象,转速随着转矩的增加而匀速下降。

      伺服系统(servo mechanism)是使物体的位置、方位、状态等输出被控量能够跟随输入目标(或给定值)的任意变化的自动控制系统。伺服主要靠脉冲来定位,基本上可以这样理解,伺服电机接收到1个脉冲,就会旋转1个脉冲对应的角度,从而实现位移,因为,伺服电机本身具备发出脉冲的功能,所以伺服电机每旋转一个角度,都会发出对应数量的脉冲,这样,和伺服电机接受的脉冲形成了呼应,或者叫闭环,如此一来,系统就会知道发了多少脉冲给伺服电机,同时又收了多少脉冲回来,这样,就能够很精确的控制电机的转动,从而实现精确的定位,可以达到0.001mm。

      浅析伺服电机的惯量问题,伺服电机低惯量与高惯量的区别差异

      在伺服系统选型及调试中,常会碰到惯量问题。其具体表现为:

      在伺服系统选型时,除考虑电机的扭矩和额定速度等等因素外,我们还需要先计算得知机械系统换算到电机轴的惯量,再根据机械的实际动作要求及加工件质量要求来具体选择具有合适惯量大小的电机;在调试时,正确设定惯量比参数是充分发挥机械及伺服系统最佳效能的前提。此点在要求高速高精度的系统上表现尤为突出,这样,就有了惯量匹配的问题。

      1、什么是“惯量匹配”?

      (1)根据牛顿第二定律:“进给系统所需力矩T = 系统传动惯量J &TImes; 角加速度θ角”。 加速度θ影响系统的动态特性,θ越小,则由控制器发出指令到系统执行完毕的时间越长,系统反应越慢。如果θ变化,则系统反应将忽快忽慢,影响加工精度。由于马达选定后最大输出T值不变,如果希望θ的变化小,则J应该尽量小。

      (2)进给轴的总惯量“J=伺服电机的旋转惯性动量JM + 电机轴换算的负载惯性动量JL。负载惯量JL由(以平面金切机床为例)工作台及上面装的夹具和工件、螺杆、联轴器等直线和旋转运动件的惯量折合到马达轴上的惯量组成。 JM为伺服电机转子惯量,伺服电机选定后,此值就为定值,而JL则随工件等负载改变而变化。如果希望J变化率小些,则最好使JL所占比例小些。这就是通俗意义上的“惯量匹配”。

      2、“惯量匹配”如何确定?

      传动惯量对伺服系统的精度,稳定性,动态响应都有影响。 惯量大,系统的机械常数大,响应慢,会使系统的固有频率下降,容易产生谐振,因而限制了伺服带宽,影响了伺服精度和响应速度,惯量的适当增大只有在改善低速爬行时有利,因此,机械设计时在不影响系统刚度的条件下,应尽量减小惯量。 衡量机械系统的动态特性时,惯量越小,系统的动态特性反应越好;惯量越大,马达的负载也就越大,越难控制,但机械系统的惯量需和马达惯量相匹配才行。 不同的机构,对惯量匹配原则有不同的选择,且有不同的作用表现。 不同的机构动作及加工质量要求对JL与JM大小关系有不同的要求,但大多要求JL与JM的比值小于十以内。一句话,惯性匹配的确定需要根据机械的工艺特点及加工质 量要求来确定。 对于基础金属切削机床,对于伺服电机来说,一般负载惯量建议应小于电机惯量的5倍。

      惯量匹配对于电机选型很重要的,同样功率的电机,有些品牌有分轻惯量,中惯量,或大惯量。其实负载惯量最好还是用公式计算出来。常见的形体惯量计算公式在以前学的书里都有现成的(可以去查机械设计手册)。 我们曾经做过一试验,在一伺服电机的轴伸,加一大的惯量盘准备用来做测试,结果是:伺服电机低速时停不住,摇头摆尾,不停地振荡怎么也停不下来。 后来改为:在两个伺服电机的轴伸对接加装联轴器,对其中一个伺服电机通电,作为动力即主动,另一个伺服电机作为从动,即做为一个小负载。原来那个摇头摆尾的伺服电机,启动、运动、停止,运转一切正常!

      浅析伺服电机的惯量问题,伺服电机低惯量与高惯量的区别差异

      3、惯量的理论计算的功式?

      惯量计算都有公式,至于多重负载,比如齿轮又带齿轮,或涡轮蜗杆传动,只要分别算出各转动件惯量然后相加即是系统惯量,电机选型时建议根椐不同的电机进行选配。 负载的转动惯量肯定是要设计时通过计算算出来拉,如果没有这个值,电机选型肯定是不那么合理的,或者肯定会有问题的,这是选伺服的最重要的几个参数之一。至于电机惯量,电机样本手册上都有标注。 当然,对某些伺服,可以通过调整伺服的过程测出负载的惯量,作为理论设计中的计算的参考。毕竟在设计阶段,很多类似摩擦系数之类的参数只能根据经验来猜,不可能准确。 理论设计中的计算的公式:(仅供参考) 通常将转动惯量J用飞轮矩GD2来表示,它们之间的关系为

      J=mp^2= GD^2/4g

      式中

      m与G-转动部分的质量(kg)与重量(N);

      D-惯性半径与直径(m);

      g=9.81m/s2 -重力加速度 飞轮惯量=速度变化率*飞轮距/375

      当然,理论与实际总会有偏差的,有些地区(如在欧洲),一般是采用中间值通过实际测试得到。这样,相对我们的经验公式要准确一些。不过,在目前还是需要计算的,也有固定公式可以去查机械设计手册的。

      4、关于摩擦系数?

      关于摩擦系数,一般电机选择只是考虑一个系数加到计算过程中,在电机调整时通常都不会考虑。不过,如果这个因素很大,或者讲,足以影响电机调整,有些日系通用伺服,据称有一个参数是用来专门测试的,至于是否好用,本人没有用过,估计应该是好用的。 有网友发贴说,曾有人发生过这样的情况:设计时照搬国外的机器,机械部分号称一样,电机功率放大了50%选型,可是电机转不动。因为样机的机械加工、装配的精度太差,负载惯量是差不多,可摩擦阻力相差太多了,对具体工况考虑不周。 当然,黏性阻尼和摩擦系数不是同一个问题。 摩擦系数是不变值,这点可以通过电机功率给予补偿,但黏性阻尼是变值,通过增大电机功率当然可以缓解,但其实是不合理的。况且没有设计依据,这个最好是在机械状态上解决,没有好的机械状态,伺服调整完全是一句空话。 还有,黏性阻尼跟机械结构设计、加工、装配等相关,这些在选型时是必须考虑的。而且跟摩擦系数也是息息相关的,正是因为加工水平不够才造成的摩擦系数不定,不同点相差较大,甚至技术工人装配水平的差异也会导致很大的差异,这些在电机选型时必须要考虑的。这样,才会有保险系数,当然归根结底还是电机功率的问题。

      5、惯量的理论计算后,微调修正的简单化

      可能有些朋友觉的:太复杂了! 实际情况是,某品牌的产品各种各样的参数已经确定,在满足功率,转矩,转速的条件下,产品型号已经确定,如果惯量仍然不能满足,能否将功率提高一档来满足惯量的要求? 答案是:功率提高可以带动加速度提高的话,应是可以的。

      6、伺服电机选型

      在选择好机械传动方案以后,就必须对伺服电机的型号和大小进行选择和确认。

      (1)选型条件:一般情况下,选择伺服电机需满足下列情况:

      1.马达最大转速>系统所需之最高移动转速。

      2.马达的转子惯量与负载惯量相匹配。

      3连续负载工作扭力≤马达额定扭力

      4.马达最大输出扭力>系统所需最大扭力(加速时扭力)

      (2)选型计算:

      1. 惯量匹配计算(JL/JM)

      2. 回转速度计算(负载端转速,马达端转速) 3. 负载扭矩计算(连续负载工作扭矩,加速时扭矩。

      浅析伺服电机的惯量问题,伺服电机低惯量与高惯量的区别差异

      伺服电机低惯量与高惯量的区别

      转动惯量=转动半径*质量

      低惯量就是电机做的比较扁长,主轴惯量小,当电机做频率高的反复运动时,惯量小,发热就小。所以低惯量的电机适合高频率的往复运动使用。但是一般力矩相对要小些。高惯量的伺服电机就比较粗大,力矩大,适合大力矩的但不很快往复运动的场合。因为高速运动到停止,驱动器要产生很大的反向驱动电压来停止这个大惯量,发热就很大了。

      惯量就是刚体绕轴转动的惯性的度量,转动惯量是表征刚体转动惯性大小的物理量。它与刚体的质量、质量相对于转轴的分布有关。(刚体是指 理想状态下的不会有任何变化的物体),选择的时候遇到电机惯量,也是伺服电机的一项重要指标。它指的是伺服电机转子本身的惯量,对于电机的加减速来说相当重要。如果不能很好的匹配惯量,电机的动作会很不平稳。

      一般来说,小惯量的电机制动性能好,启动,加速停止的反应很快,高速往复性好,适合于一些轻负载,高速定位的场合,如一些直线高速定位机构。中、大惯量的电机适用大负载、平稳要求比较高的场合,如一些圆周运动机构和一些机床行业。

      如果负载比较大或是加速特性比较大,而选择了小惯量的电机,可能对电机轴损伤太大,选择应该根据负载的大小,加速度的大小,等等因素来选择,一般的选型手册上有相关的能量计算公式。

      伺服电机驱动器对伺服电机的响应控制,最佳值为负载惯量与电机转子惯量之比为一,最大不可超过五倍。通过机械传动装置的设计,可以使负载

      惯量与电机转子惯量之比接近一或较小。当负载惯量确实很大,机械设计不可能使负载惯量与电机转子惯量之比小于五倍时,则可使用电机转子惯量较大的电机,即所谓的大惯量电机。使用大惯量的电机,要达到一定的响应,驱动器的容量应要大一些。

      浅析伺服电机的惯量问题,伺服电机低惯量与高惯量的区别差异

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